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Accessibility problems

These problems are due to failures to meet the WCAG2 Level A accessibility guidelines
CodeSummaryDetails
E860[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] When using images, specify a short text alternative with the 'alt' attributeIf there is no 'alt' attribute, then assistive technologies are not able to identify the image or to convey its purpose to the user. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F65.html (displayed in new window)
P861[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] When using the <area> element, specify a short text alternative with the 'alt' attributeEnsure the <area> element 'alt' attribute value is displayed in response to attaining focus (including keyboard focus), and that this applies when images are loaded and not loaded. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H24.html (displayed in new window)
E862[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] When using a text alternative it must be meaningfulIf the text in the 'text alternative' cannot be used in place of the non-text content without losing information or function then it fails because it is not, in fact, an alternative to the non-text content. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F30.html (displayed in new window)
E863[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] The 'title' attribute should be missing or empty when ignoring non-text contentWhen using <img>, it is valid to have an empty 'alt' attribute for images that have no content, but the 'title' attribute should be missing or empty as well. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H67.html (displayed in new window)
P864[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] Applets should have a text alternative in an 'alt' attribute and in the body textWhen using <applet>, you should provide an 'alt' attribute with a non-blank value and provide a text alternative in the body text of the applet. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H35.html (displayed in new window)
P865[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] Objects should have a text alternativeWhen using <object>, you should provide a text alternative in the body text of the object. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H53.html (displayed in new window)
E875[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] The corresponding <noembed> element is missing or misplacedFor each <embed> element you should provide either a nested <noembed> element or a <noembed> element immediately following it. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H46.html (displayed in new window)
P886[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] Do not use the 'alt' attribute hereAlthough HTML may allow the 'alt' attribute here, it should only be used on image submit buttons. User agent support for this attribute on other types of form controls is not well defined. Other mechanisms are available to label these controls. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H36.html (displayed in new window)
P888[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] The 'alt' attribute is for short descriptions. Use 'longdesc' for long onesThe 'alt' text you specified was at least 100 characters long. For long descriptions you should use the 'longdesc' attribute. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H45.html (displayed in new window)
P889[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] The 'alt' attribute is for short descriptions. Use 'longdesc' for long onesThe 'alt' text you specified was at least 100 characters long. For long descriptions (when 'longdesc' is not supported) you should use a separate description link. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H45.html (displayed in new window)
W860[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] Is the 'alt' text deliberately empty?When using <img>, it is valid to have an empty 'alt' attribute for images that have no content; such as spacers and parts of larger images that have been broken up or used for other layout purposes. You may wish to check that in this case the alt text has not simply been forgotten. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F30.html (displayed in new window)
W861[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] Is the 'title' text deliberately empty?The 'title' attribute is used to provide additional information to help clarify or further describe the purpose of a link, but in this case it has been found to be empty. You may wish to check that the title text has not simply been forgotten. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H33.html (displayed in new window)
W866[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] The 'alt' attribute is for short descriptions. Use 'longdesc' for long onesThe 'alt' text you specified was at least 75 characters long. For long descriptions you should use the 'longdesc' attribute. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H45.html (displayed in new window)
W867[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] The 'alt' attribute is for short descriptions. Use 'longdesc' for long onesThe 'alt' text you specified was at least 75 characters long. For long descriptions (when 'longdesc' is not supported) you should use a separate description link. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H45.html (displayed in new window)
P900[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] When using a text alternative it must not include ASCII art or smileysIf the text in the 'text alternative' when read aloud does not sound meaningful then it fails because it is not, in fact, an alternative to the non-text content. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F72.html (displayed in new window).
P903[WCAG2 1.1.1 (A)] Embedded objects should have a text alternative in an 'alt' attributeWhen using <embed>, specify a short text equivalent with the 'alt' attribute. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#text-equiv (displayed in new window).
E866[WCAG2 1.1.1/1.3.1/3.3.2 (A)] Form controls without a label should have a 'title' attributeUse the 'title' attribute to label form controls when the visual design cannot accommodate the label (for example, if there is no text on the screen that can be identified as a label) or where it might be confusing to display a label. User agents, including assisting technology, can speak the 'title' attribute. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H65.html (displayed in new window)
P871[WCAG2 1.1.1/2.4.4 (A)] Link text is missingDescribe the purpose of a link by providing descriptive text as the content of the <a> element. The description lets a user distinguish this link from other links in the Web page and helps the user determine whether to follow the link. The URI of the destination is generally not sufficiently descriptive. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H30.html (displayed in new window)
E893[WCAG2 1.1.1/4.1.2 (A)] Do not use images as frame targets, always point to web pagesRather than point directly to an image, embed the image in a web page so that if the content of the frame is changed the text-alternative can follow this change. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F20.html (displayed in new window)
E873[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] The 'summary' and 'caption' are the sameMaking the 'caption' and 'summary' the same is unnecessarily confusing. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H39.html (displayed in new window)
P876[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Provide a descriptive summary for complex data tablesProvide a descriptive 'summary' attribute for complex data tables. This must be a proper description and not a terse one. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H73 (displayed in new window). If this is not a data table then this is a error as there is structural markup present. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F46 (displayed in new window)
E877[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Invalid value for 'scope' attributeThe 'scope' attribute must have one of the following values: row, col, rowgroup, or colgroup. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H63.html (displayed in new window)
P879[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Provide a description for data tablesProvide either a <caption>, 'title' or 'summary' attributes to describe the table. This must be a proper description and not a terse one. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/content-structure-separation-programmatic.html (displayed in new window). If this is not a data table then this is a error as there is structural markup present. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F46 (displayed in new window)
E880[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] For data tables use markup to associate data cells and header cellsFor data tables you must use markup to associate data cells and header cells, and no such markup was found. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/content-structure-separation-programmatic.html (displayed in new window). If this is not a data table then this is a error as there is structural markup present. See http://www.w3.org/TR/2014/NOTE-WCAG20-TECHS-20140311/F91.html (displayed in new window)
E881[WCAG2 1.3.1/3.3.2 (A)] The <fieldset> element should only be used within a formUsing a <fieldset> outside of a form usually indicates it is being used for presentation effects. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H71.html (displayed in new window)
P883[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Nest headings properly (H1 > H2 > H3)Heading elements must be ordered properly. For example, H2 elements should follow H1 elements, H3 elements should follow H2 elements, etc. Developers should not skip levels or use headings for presentation effects. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F43.html (displayed in new window)
E885[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Associate form controls with <label> tags using the 'id' attributeAssociate labels properly with their controls. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F68.html (displayed in new window)
E885[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Associate <label> tags with form controls using the 'for' attributeAssociate labels properly with their controls. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F68.html (displayed in new window)
E885[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Label text is missingAssociate labels properly with their controls. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F68.html (displayed in new window)
E885[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Associate labels with just one form controlAssociate labels properly with their controls. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F68.html (displayed in new window)
P892[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Use CSS for presentation effects, use <em> or <strong> for emphasisTags that are being used purely to create a visual presentation effect should not be used. You should use CSS to control layout and presentation so that users and their aids may control it. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/G140.html (displayed in new window)
E895[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Reference to a missing or incorrect 'id' attributeReferences to other parts of the same document must exist to ensure that Web pages can be interpreted properly. Note that certain attributes such as 'for' can only reference certain elements in the same <form>. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F62.html (displayed in new window)
W862[WCAG2 1.3.1 (A)] Table headings should use a scope attributeUnless you are using a simple table, you should use the scope attribute to clarify the scope of any cell used as a header. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H63.html (displayed in new window)
W863[WCAG2 1.3.1/3.3.2 (A)] The <fieldset> element should be used to group radio buttons and checkboxesBecause groups of radio buttons and checkboxes are multiple controls, it is particularly important that they be grouped semantically so they can be more easily treated as a single control. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H71.html (displayed in new window)
W865[WCAG2 1.3.1/3.3.2 (A)] Each <fieldset> should have a <legend> element that includes a description of that grouphe first element inside the <fieldset> should be a <legend>, which provides a label or instructions for the group. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H71.html (displayed in new window)
E896[WCAG2 1.3.1/4.1.1 (A)] Duplicate 'accesskey' value. See matching tag(s) on line(s): LINE_NUMBERSAccesskeys must have unique values in order to be useful. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F17.html (displayed in new window)
E897[WCAG2 1.3.1/4.1.1 (A)] Missing 'id' attribute corresponding to the 'axis' attributeIf you specify an 'axis' attribute you must also specify an 'id' attribute and this 'id' attribute must also exist in at least one 'headers' attribute in another table cell. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F17.html (displayed in new window)
E891[WCAG2 2.1.1 (A)] Server-side image maps are not keyboard accessibleServer-side image maps are not keyboard accessible. Consider an accessible alternative instead. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/keyboard-operation-keyboard-operable.html (displayed in new window)
E902[WCAG2 2.1.1 (A)] Non-interactive element with onkey* attributeYou must add a 'tabindex' attribute to non-interactive elements that have onkey* event handlers to make them focusable. Otherwise users will not be able to tab to it to be able to fire the onkey* event. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#keyboard-operation-keyboard-operable (displayed in new window)
E887[WCAG2 2.1.1/3.2.1 (A)] Do not remove focus when focus is receivedThe system focus indicator is an important part of accessibility for keyboard users. Removing focus entirely means the content can only be accessed by a pointer device. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F55.html (displayed in new window)
E882[WCAG2 2.2.1 (A)] You should not use a non-zero page refresh or redirectIt is important that the time-out is set to zero, to avoid that content is displayed before the new page is loaded. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F41.html (displayed in new window)
E901[WCAG2 2.2.1 (A)] You should not use a non-zero page redirectIt is important that the time-out is set to zero, to avoid content being displayed before the new page is loaded. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F40.html (displayed in new window)
E884[WCAG2 2.2.2 (A)] Do not use this tag. Consider <em> or using CSS insteadUsing blink causes any text inside the element to blink at a predetermined rate, which cannot be interrupted by the user or disabled. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F47.html (displayed in new window)
E890[WCAG2 2.2.2 (A)] Do not use this tag. Consider an alternative insteadWith the <marquee> element there is moving or scrolling content that cannot be paused and resumed by users. Some users with low vision or cognitive disabilities will not be able to perceive the content. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F16.html (displayed in new window)
E898[WCAG2 2.4.1 (A)] Heading with no contentEnsure that all headings contain informative content. This is necessary because users may navigate or search by headings. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-skip.html (displayed in new window)
W869[WCAG2 2.4.1 (A)] Use heading elements to convey structureMany assistive technologies provide navigation using headings, including skipping navigational links. If your document has any structure you should use heading markup to to convey the structure of the content. Even a single header will make it easier for users. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H69.html (displayed in new window)
W870[WCAG2 2.4.1 (A)] Skip navigation links should be the first link on a pageA skip navigation link was detected but it was not the first link on the page. Unless it is the first link then it may defeat the point for users. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-skip.html (displayed in new window), and http://webaim.org/techniques/skipnav/ (displayed in new window)
W871[WCAG2 2.4.1 (A)] Skip navigation links should not be hiddenHidden skip navigation links are not accessible for keyboard users. You should consider replacing this with a visible link and using CSS to hide it until the tab key is used. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-skip.html (displayed in new window), and http://webaim.org/techniques/skipnav/#focus (displayed in new window)
E869[WCAG2 2.4.2 (A)] Add a <title> tag to the page to describe itYou should always provide a <title> element in the head section that defines in a simple phrase the purpose of the document. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F25.html (displayed in new window)
E870[WCAG2 2.4.2 (A)] Add a concise, meaningful <title> tag to the page to describe itThe <title> should contain a concise, meaningful description, less than 150 characters long. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F25.html (displayed in new window)
E867[WCAG2 2.4.4 (A)] Unnecessary duplication of link description. See matching tag(s) on line(s): LINE_NUMBERSA 'stuttering' effect occurs when you have two adjacent links containing the same description. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H2.html (displayed in new window)
E868[WCAG2 2.4.4 (A)] Unnecessary duplication of link description. See matching tag(s) on line(s): LINE_NUMBERSA 'stuttering' effect occurs when you have the same link text as the 'alt' text of an image within the link. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H2.html (displayed in new window)
E899[WCAG2 2.4.4 (A)] Use different values for 'title' attributes with links that use the same link text. See matching tag(s) on line(s): LINE_NUMBERSIf you have different links with the same link text and 'title' it can be confusing to the user. So you should either change the link text or add a unique 'title' to each link. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-refs.html (displayed in new window)
W868[WCAG2 2.4.4 (A)] Different links that use the same link text may be confusing. See matching tag(s) on line(s): LINE_NUMBERSIf you have different links with the same link text it can be confusing to the user. So you should either change the link text or add a unique 'title' attribute to each link. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-refs.html (displayed in new window)
W864[WCAG2 3.1.1 (A)] Use the 'lang' or 'xml:lang' attribute to denote the primary language of the documentYou should always identify the primary natural language of a document. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H57.html (displayed in new window)
E872[WCAG2 3.2.2 (A)] The submit button is missingYou must provide a mechanism that allows users to explicitly request changes of context. The intended use of a submit button is to generate an HTTP request that submits data entered in a form, so it is an appropriate control to use for causing a change of context. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H32.html (displayed in new window)
W872[WCAG2 3.2.2 (A)] Using 'onchange' with selections may prevent keyboard operationUsing 'onchange' with selections may prevent keyboard operation, because the handler fires as the selection is changed using the keyboard. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F36.html (displayed in new window)
E874[WCAG2 3.3.2 (A)] The matching <label> tag must appear before/after the controlAssociate labels properly with their controls. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H44.html (displayed in new window)
E894[WCAG2 4.1.1 (A)] Duplicate 'id' value found. See matching tag(s) on line(s): LINE_NUMBERSIDs must be unique within a document to ensure that Web pages can be interpreted consistently. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F77.html (displayed in new window)
E878[WCAG2 4.1.2 (A)] Add a 'title' attribute to facilitate identification and navigationTitle each <frame> and <iframe> to facilitate identification and navigation. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H64.html (displayed in new window)

These problems are due to failures to meet the WCAG2 Level AA accessibility guidelines
CodeSummaryDetails
E910[WCAG2 1.4.4 (AA)] Use relative, rather than absolute unitsUsing relative units helps the page to be rendered correctly at different resolutions and allows people with sight difficulties to 'zoom in' to pages to read them. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/visual-audio-contrast-scale.html (displayed in new window)
E898[WCAG2 2.4.6 (AA)] Heading with no contentEnsure that all headings contain informative content. This is necessary because users may navigate or search by headings. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/navigation-mechanisms-skip.html (displayed in new window)
W911[WCAG2 2.4.6 (AA)] Provide descriptive textAny descriptive text supplied should be clear. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/G131.html (displayed in new window)
E887[WCAG2 2.4.7 (AA)] Do not remove focus when focus is receivedThe system focus indicator is an important part of accessibility for keyboard users. Removing focus entirely means the content can only be accessed by a pointer device. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F55.html (displayed in new window)

These problems are due to failures to meet the WCAG2 Level AAA accessibility guidelines
CodeSummaryDetails
E921[WCAG2 1.4.8 (AAA)] You should not use justified textMany people with cognitive disabilities have a great deal of trouble with blocks of text that are justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins). See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F88.html (displayed in new window)
E887[WCAG2 2.1.3 (AAA)] Do not remove focus when focus is receivedThe system focus indicator is an important part of accessibility for keyboard users. Removing focus entirely means the content can only be accessed by a pointer device. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F55.html (displayed in new window)
E891[WCAG2 2.1.3 (AAA)] Server-side image maps are not keyboard accessibleServer-side image maps are not keyboard accessible. Consider an accessible alternative instead. See http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/keyboard-operation-keyboard-operable.html (displayed in new window)
E900[WCAG2 2.1.3 (AAA)] <a> or <area> without an 'href' cannot receive keyboard focusYou should always explicitly provide a 'href' attribute for links so that they can receive keyboard focus. Note that using Javascript prevents links being read out by screen readers. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F42.html (displayed in new window)
E901[WCAG2 2.2.4 (AAA)] You should not use a non-zero page redirectIt is important that the time-out is set to zero, to avoid content being displayed before the new page is loaded. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F40.html (displayed in new window)
E882[WCAG2 2.2.4/3.2.5 (AAA)] You should not use a non-zero page refresh or redirectIt is important that the time-out is set to zero, to avoid that content is displayed before the new page is loaded. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F41.html (displayed in new window)
E867[WCAG2 2.4.9 (AAA)] Unnecessary duplication of link description. See matching tag(s) on line(s): LINE_NUMBERSA 'stuttering' effect occurs when you have two adjacent links containing the same description. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H2.html (displayed in new window)
P871[WCAG2 2.4.9 (AAA)] Link text is missingDescribe the purpose of a link by providing descriptive text as the content of the <a> element. The description lets a user distinguish this link from other links in the Web page and helps the user determine whether to follow the link. The URI of the destination is generally not sufficiently descriptive. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H30.html (displayed in new window)
E922[WCAG2 2.4.9 (AAA)] Provide descriptive link textYou should always provide a way of allowing users to know the destination from the link text alone. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/F84.html (displayed in new window)
W869[WCAG2 2.4.10 (AAA)] Use heading elements to convey structureMany assistive technologies provide navigation using headings, including skipping navigational links. If your document has any structure you should use heading markup to to convey the structure of the content. Even a single header will make it easier for users. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H69.html (displayed in new window)
W920[WCAG2 3.1.4 (AAA)] Add a 'title' attribute to the element to describe itEnsure that <abbr> and <acronym> elements have a 'title' attribute that describes the abbreviation/acronym. See http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/H28.html (displayed in new window)

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